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Dolmens

Дольмены

\n A special place among the attractions of Tuapsinsky district is occupied with multifarious megaliths, such as dolmens, menhirs, as well as stone and soil burial grounds and tumuli. Of all megalithic constructions, which may be found in Tuapsinsky district, the dolmens arouse a continued and genuine interest. Modern local history experts think that about 400 dolmens have been preserved until now in Tuapse, rural localities Prigorodny, Dzhubga, Novomikhailovsky, villages Tenginka, Anastasievka and some other inhabited localities.

\n The absolute majority of dolmens in Tuapsinsky district refers to the so-called plate type. They are composed of large stone plates, four of which are arranged vertically and covered with the fifth plate that forms the roof of stone box or chamber of the dolmen. A front plate is always higher than a rear one so that the plate that forms the roof is tilted backward. The plates are very carefully adjusted to each other by means of special grooves and protrusions. In the front plate of a dolmen there is a small hole of round, oval or more complex form (archaeologists call it “manhole”). Sometimes there is a sixth plate that forms the floor of a dolmen chamber, but in most cases a dolmen is placed directly on soil or on special stones (“heel” stones).\n<\/p>\n

\n Multiton plates, of which a dolmen is composed, are practically not finished on the outside, but they are carefully aligned and sometimes almost polished on the inner side, which forms the chamber walls. A significant part of the Caucasus plate dolmens has special protrusions of side walls and roof in the front part, forming a kind of extension to the dolmen. This extension is called the portal, and such dolmens — portal dolmens. Sometimes there are additional extensions to the portal, which are composed of separate stones and form an “enclosure”.\n<\/p>\n

\n The Caucasus dolmens were built from dense sandy limestone or sandstone; the silicified and metamorphic rocks were used for this purpose less often. The time of their construction dates back to the period from 2400 to 1300 B.C.\n<\/p>\n

\n It was noted that near the places, where dolmens stand isolated or in a group, the soils collapse, the landslides occur, the mud flows rush by, but this does not lead to the destruction of dolmens.\n<\/p>\n

\n Another interesting and simultaneously mysterious fact is the invariability of the aspect ratio 1:1.6 (by the way, the sizes of a human skull have the same ratio).\n<\/p>

Дольмены

Dolmens

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